|Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela|
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a South American country formerly under democratically elected Hugo Chavez of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela. It was the birthplace of the well known Latin American revolutionary, Simón Bolívar, a national hero in the country, who liberated Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru from Spanish colonial rule in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Venezuela is one of the world's leading exporters of petroleum, and a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). the Venezuelan economy is heavily dependent on oil revenue and vulnerable to fluctuating oil prices.
In March 2013 Col. Chavez died. In the subsequent election, his v.p., Sr. Maduro, beat the opposition candidate narrowly by 50,7% to 49,3%.
The country is the origin of the Latin American ideology, "Bolivarianism", hence the nation's official name.
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Sourced material on the economy
Socialist reform, political unrest and deep divisions characterised President Chavez's term in office. His supporters - known as "chavistas" - and his detractors both staged street protests. Supporters said his economic reforms - including the nationalisation of much of the economy, especially the oil sector - and his expansion of social programmes helped the poor benefit from the country's oil export revenues. Critics say Chavista policies have harmed economic performance. 
Sourced information on Venezuela after Chavez
After Hugo Chavez died Nicolas Maduro became president and won an election in 2013. Manduro has lost support since then and there have been protests and unrest. Maduro was accused of treating protesters harshly. Inflation in Venezuela is dangerously high, there are accusations of corruption and nepotism involving Manduro's government and uncertainty whether Venezuela will remain democratic. 
Sourced material on climate
Venezuela has a tropical climate. It is one of the 17 most biodiverse nations in the world. It is also the most urbanised nation in South America.
The Orinoco River flows through Venezuela and provides rich, fertile soil for the population. These are also large oil fields in the country, which have become a staple of Venezuela's economy.
Much of the northern Amazon Rainforest lies within Venezuelan territory.
Unsourced material on politics
Unsourced material on relations with the United States
Relations between the United States and Venezuela were tense after Chavez began his criticisms of the US' foreign policy and human rights record, including waterboarding and other forms of torture in Guantanamo Bay. The previous right wing administration in the United States lashed out at Venezuela's progressive social policies and Democratic socialist agenda. After Chavez's election, the country underwent large scale Socialist reforms, labelled by the government and its supporters as the Democratic Socialist "Bolivarian Revolution", after the government's ideology.
Venezuela's large oil reserves have resulted in the United States becoming a client of the country's petroleum industry, despite the tight government control and nationalisation. US Conservatives have argued against government control of the oil, claiming the revenue should not go towards social programs but to the oil industry.
During the winter months, the Venezuelan petroleum company of Citgo donates heating oil to people who can't afford it in the United States, so they won't freeze. Other oil companies do not want to subsidize this and says they should depend upon oil donations from U.S. government organizations only.
Unsourced material on relations with fellow Latin American nations
Venezuela borders Colombia, Brazil, and Guyana and is proximate to several Caribbean countries. Venezuela has provided loans to these countries in the billions, has made many economic deals, and has provided these nations with cheap oil.
In exchange for oil, Cuba sends doctors to Venezuela for the poor who have never seen a doctor in the communities where they live. Also, with the oil money, the government subsidizes food markets so the poor can afford to eat. Education is also free, including higher learning institutions, colleges, and universities.
The Venezuelan government has also provided money to build new houses and apartments in the slums of Venezuela where there used to be only shacks. Venezuela has also recently built a film, media, and television studio for up and coming film students, directors, actors, and actresses to make films that are more culturally suited to the region rather than solely depend upon the influence of American or European films or major blockbusters which serve no intense introspection or discussion.
As a result of Chavez's policies, Venezuela's social indicators have improved markedly. The literacy rate incdreased from 90% in 1990 to 95% in 2007. Consider these Chavez also instituted free health care for the poor which has increased the average lifespan.
- Latin America: the attack on democracy This is a very long and informative article from the Left Wing British magazine, the New Statesman. It shows how the United States under the former President George W. Bush worked to uproot Democracy in Venezuela and other Latin American countries with UK support,
- Venezuela profile Let's hope this from the BBC is reliable.