- A monarch is a Dictator who became ruler through birth.
- A constitutional monarch is a ruler in name only. The real seats of government are elsewhere. Many democracies are Constitutional Monarchies. The United Kingdom is an example. In the UK people working on behalf of the constitutional monarch are sometimes said to represent the crown.
Most monarchs are kings but a few are queens. Usually a monarch is the eldest son of the former king. The kingdom where a monarch rules or presides is called a monarchy.
Longevity and decline of monarchy
Monarchy is an old form of government, at least as old as writing, and most large-scale societies have entered history as monarchies. Republics larger than city-states have been rare, with the largest one, the Roman Republic, becoming a monarchy, the Roman Empire. Monarchies have also been very long-lived, even if not strictly continuous. The Chinese and Pharaonic Egyptian ones had lasted about 3,000 years, and various other ones had lasted for somewhat shorter times.
But all that changed over the last few centuries. The beginning of the end was George Washington refusing to crown himself king after the American Revolution. Instead, the thirteen rebellious colonies created a new republic, with George Washington as its first President.
The French revolutionaries tried to follow in their footsteps, but they had lots of bloody strife and guillotinings, and most European nation builders from then to World War I preferred monarchs for their nations. But World Wars I and II destroyed several European monarchies, with their successors creating republics instead. Elsewhere in the World, nations that became independent of European colonialism have preferred to become republics, first in Latin America, and then in Africa and Asia.
A few monarchies have emerged, like North Korea's Kim dynasty, and the Spanish monarchy was restored, but they are a weak countertrend. Most European and Asian monarchies are now figurehead ones, with the real business of ruling done by elected leaders in democratic-republic fashion. Those ones' monarchs and their families are essentially professional socialites and professional celebrities, something very obvious for the British monarchy.
Queen Elizabeth II has kept the British monarchy going by being very likable, something that has likely kept Australia and New Zealand from detaching themselves from the British monarchy and becoming republics. Prince Charles, however, has caused lots of embarrassing controversies, and if he became king, he would likely make the British monarchy much less appreciated.
How do monarchies get started?
One suggestion is what some political scientists call the "crown prince problem". Who will be the leader's successor? Some political systems have ways of choosing successors independent of individual leaders, democracies being an obvious case. Dictatorial ones may also, like theocracies and Communist countries.
But if a leader has taken over and his regime is mainly his friends and their friends, some appointed successor might try to get into office early. So the safest choice is often one of the leader's children. Thus, hereditary succession and thus, monarchy.
Extreme Conservative view on monarchy
Monarchy is the only form of government that is ultimately viable, as leaving decisions to the commoners will result in catastrophe. The greatest leaders of all time have and will be monarchs. If you do not agree with this POV, then GTFO because you are obviously a n00b at life. Maybe that's how and why the U.K. isn't quite liberal like most European countries. Surprising America hasn't declared an interventionist war against the U.K. But, oh no, that couldn't happen! They're buddies! Nah, could happen! Give them time!