Abstinence is the term used to refer to the practice of never having Sexual intercourse before Marriage ie avoiding Pre-marital sex. After marriage avoiding Adultery is called fidelity. Abstinence is deeply associated with Conservative religions, and as such does not support the use of Birth control, Condoms or other forms of birth control. People who practice abstinence are known as being "abstinent".
Abstinence in teaching
Fundamentalist conservatives generally believe that students should not be educated properly about Birth control in school and instead told that that Thing in their trousers will kill an angel if it's used before you're married. Students are told this instead of informing them of birth control methods, which allows them to choose their own lifestyle. Then when the kids aren't strong enough to resist temptation this causes Abortions or Babies.
Liberals generally believe that students should be educated properly about birth control, and how it does and doesn't always work (because we don't pretend that Jonny's are 100% bulletproof). This way, students can make a choice for themselves, rather than having their parents' beliefs forced onto them.
In most of Europe students are informed properly about birth control methods, as it is a progressive part of the World. In England students learn more about contraception than American students do and teen pregnancy rates are lower  than in the United States. There are more teen pregnancies in Britain than in most of Europe because Britain is more like the United States when it comes to teenage pregnancy.
The brighter American kids can and do educate themselves about contraception but the difference in rates of teen pregnancy between Europe and the USA shows teaching safe sex in school improves things.
When Abstinence Fails
Conservatives will often conveniently forget to mention a incident some 2,000 years ago somewhere in the Middle east, when abstinence completely failed. Liberals, at the very least, don't pretend that contraception is 100% effective. This is because conservatives are Liars, whereas liberals are good honest people.
Sarah Palin, former governor of Alaska and professional problem, had a similar incident occur in her family, when her daughter, raised to believe that abstinence was absolute, ended up getting pregnant twice anyway!
And in some cases of crazy conservative families, for instance if their children end up getting pregnant they will forcefully make their children get married very young at ages such as 16 to even 19 years old. Seeing this as simply a big sin if their child's partner gets pregnant. The sad thing is though, which most conservatives and Christian fundamentalists seem to ignore is that getting married at very young age will lead to poverty and economic troubles, which in most cases people who happen to get married at 18 or 19 years old will probably be already divorced from their spouse by the time they are 25 years old. 
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- Abstinence programs (RationalWiki article about abstinence miseducation in the United States)
- Early Teen Marriage and Poverty, by Gordon B. Dahl